Prof. Ardoin’s publications are available through the Stanford Digital Repository/Open Archive

Journal Articles

Lemos, M.C., Arnott, J.C., Ardoin, N.M., et al. In press. To Co-Produce or Not to Co-Produce. Nature Sustainability.

Niemiec, R., Willer, R., Ardoin, N.M., and Kinslow, F.B. In press. Motivating Model Landowners to Recruit and Coordinate with Their Neighbors for Private Land Conservation. Conservation Biology.

Gould, R.K., Ardoin, N.M., Thomsen, J., and Wyman Roth, N. In press. Environmental Learning and Environmental Behavior in Everyday Life: Exploring connections through case studies. Environmental Education Research.

Ardoin, N.M., Bowers, A.W., Holthuis, N., Wyman Roth, N. In Press. Environmental Education and K–12 Student Outcomes: A review and analysis of research. Journal of Environmental Education, 49(1): 1–17.

Niemiec, R.M., Ardoin, N., Brewer, F., Kung, S., Lopez, K. 2018. Fear of Social Sanctions and Increased Neighbor Interaction: Associations with Resident Action to Control the Invasive Little Fire Ant. Society and Natural Resources.

Gould, R.K., Phukan, I., Mendoza, M.E., Ardoin, N.M., Panikkar, B. 2018. Seizing Opportunities to Diversify Conservation. Conservation Letters. Available online.

Niemiec, R.M., Asner, G.P., Brodrick, P., Gaertner, J., and Ardoin, N.M. 2018. Scale-Dependence of Environmental and Socioeconomic Drivers of Biological Invasion in Hawai‘i. Landscape and Urban Planning, 169: 70–80.

Biggar, M.T. and Ardoin, N.M. 2017. Community Context, Human Needs, and Transportation Choices: A view across San Francisco Bay Area communities. Journal of Transport Geography, 60: 189–199.

Khalil, K.A., Ardoin, N.M., and Wojcik, D.J. 2017. Social Learning within a Community of Practice: Investigating interactions about evaluation among zoo education professionals. Evaluation and Program Planning, 61: 45–54.

Niemiec, R.M., Ardoin, N.M., Wharton, C., Brewer, F. 2017. Civic and Natural Place Attachment as Correlates of Resident Invasive Species Control Behavior in Hawaii. Biological Conservation, 209: 415–422.

Reineman, D. and Ardoin, N.M. 2018. Sustainable Tourism and the Management of Nearshore Coastal Places: Place Attachment and Disruption to Surf-Spots. Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., Frensley, B., and Ardoin, N.M. 2017. What Difference Do Role Models Make? Investigating outcomes at a residential environmental education center. Environmental Education Research.

Ardoin, N.M., Clark, C.C., and Wojcik, D. 2016. Looking toward the Blue Sky: Environmental education researchers’ experience, influences, and aspirations. Applied Environmental Education & Communication, 15(1): 75–89.

Ardoin, N.M., DiGiano, M., O’Connor, K., and Podkul, T. 2017. The Development of Trust in Residential Environmental Education Programs. Environmental Education Research.

Ardoin, N.M., Schuh, J., and Khalil, K. 2016. Environmental Behavior of Visitors to a Science Museum. Visitor Studies, 19(1): 77–95.

Ardoin, N.M., Wheaton, M., Hunt, C., Schuh, J., and Durham, W. 2016. Post-trip philanthropic intentions of nature-based tourists in Galapagos. Journal of Ecotourism.

Biggar, M.T. and Ardoin, N.M. 2017. More Than Good Intentions: The role of conditions in personal transportation behavior. Local Environment.

Boudet, H.S., Ardoin, N.M., Flora, J., Armel, K.C., Desai, M., and Robinson, T.R. 2016. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours. Nature Energy.

Browning, M.H.E.M., Stern, M.J., Ardoin, N.M., and Heimlich, J.E., 2018.  Factors that Contribute to Community Members’ Support of Local Nature Centers. Environmental Education Research.

Browning, M.M., Stern, M.J., Ardoin, N.M., Heimlich, J.E., Petty, R., and Charles, C. 2016. Investigating the Sets of Values that Community Members Hold toward Local Nature Centers. Environmental Education Research.

Cravens, A.E., and Ardoin, N.M. 2016. Negotiating Credibility and Legitimacy in the Shadow of an Authoritative Data Source. Ecology and Society.

Gould, R.K., Ardoin, N.M., Biggar, M., Cravens, A.E., and Wojcik, D. 2016. Environmental Behavior’s Dirty Secret: The prevalence of waste management in discussions of environmental concern and action. Environmental Management.

Khalil, K.A., Ardoin, N.M., and Wojcik, D.J. 2016. The Company You Keep: Networks in a community of informal education evaluators. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 51: 7–16.

Lincoln, N.K. and Ardoin, N.M. 2016. Farmer Typology in South Kona, Hawai‘i: Who’s farming, how, and why? Food, Culture, & Society, 19(3): 563–585.

Lukacs, H., Ardoin, N.M., and Grubert, E. 2016. Beyond Formal Groups: Neighboring acts and watershed protection in Appalachia. International Journal of the

Niemiec, R., Ardoin, N.M., Wharton, C., and Asner, G.P. 2016. Motivating Residents to Combat Invasive Species on Private Lands: Social norms and community reciprocity. Ecology and Society, 21(2): 30.

Oakes, L.E., Ardoin, N.M., and Lambin, E. 2016. “I Know, therefore I Adapt?” Complexities of individual adaptation to climate-induced forest dieback in Alaska. Ecology and Society, 21(2): 40.

Stern, M.J., Ardoin, N.M., and Powell, R.B. 2017.  Exploring the Effectiveness of Outreach Strategies in Conservation Projects: The case of the Audubon Toyota TogetherGreen Program. Society and Natural Resources.

Ardoin, N.M., Biedenweg, K., and O’Connor, K. 2015. Evaluation in Residential Environmental Education: An applied literature review of intermediary outcomes. Applied Environmental Education & Communication, 14(1): 43–56. Download pdf.

Ardoin, N.M., DiGiano, M., O’Connor, K., and Holthuis, N. 2016. Using Online Narratives to Explore Participant Experiences in a Residential Environmental Education Program. Children’s Geographies, 14(3): 263–281. Download pdf.

Ardoin, N.M., Wheaton, M., Bowers, A.W., Hunt, C.A., and Durham, W. 2015. Nature-Based Tourism’s Impact on Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior: A review and analysis of the literature and potential future research. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Download pdf.

Lincoln, N. and Ardoin, N.M. 2015. Cultivating Values: Environmental values and sense of place as correlates of sustainable agricultural practices. Agriculture and Human Values. Download pdf.

Oakes, L.E., Hennon, P.E., Ardoin, N.M., D’Amore, D.V., Ferguson, A.K., Steel, E.A., Wittwer, D.T., and Lambin, E.F. 2015. Conservation in a Social-Ecological System Experiencing Climate-Induced Tree Mortality. Biological Conservation, 192: 276–285. Download.

Wheaton, M., Ardoin, N.M., Schuh, J., Hunt, C.A., Kresse, M., Menke, C., and Durham, W. 2016. Using Web and Mobile Technology to Motivate Pro-Environmental Action after a Nature-Based Tourism Experience. Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Ardoin, N.M. 2014. Exploring Sense of Place and Environmental Behavior at an Ecoregional Scale in Three Sites. Human Ecology, Download pdf.

Ardoin, N.M., Gould, R.K., Fielding-Singh, P., and Kelsey, E. 2014. Collaborative and Transformational Leadership in the Environmental Realm. Journal of Environmental Policy &

Boudet, H.S., Ardoin, N.M., Flora, J., Armel, K.C., and Robinson, T.R. 2014. Energy Behaviours of Northern California Girl Scouts and their Families. Energy Policy, 73: 439–449.

Gould, R.K., Klain, S., Ardoin, N.M., Satterfield, T., Woodside, U., Hannahs, N., Daily, G.C., and Chan, K.M. 2014. A Protocol for Eliciting Nonmaterial Values through a Cultural Ecosystem Services Frame. Conservation Biology, 29(2): 575–586.

Gould, R.K., Ardoin, N.M., Woodside, U., Satterfield, T., Hannahs, N., and Daily, G.C. 2014. The Forest Has a Story: Cultural ecosystem services in Kona, Hawai‘i. Ecology and Society, 19(3): 55–84.

Rich, H. and Ardoin, N.M. 2014. Teacher and Administrator Perceptions of School Gardens in Cape Town, South Africa. Children, Youth and Environments, 24(3): 58–79.

Ardoin, N.M. and Heimlich, J.E. 2013. Views from the Field: Educators’ and practitioners’ perceptions of education as a strategy in support of conservation outcomes. Journal of Environmental Education. Download pdf.

Ardoin, N.M., DiGiano, M., Bundy, J., Chang, S., Holthuis, N., and O’Connor, K. 2014. Using Digital Photography and Journaling in Evaluation of Field-Based Environmental Education Programs. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 41: 68–76.

Ardoin, N.M., Castrechini, S., and Hofstedt, M. 2013. Youth–Community–University Partnerships and Sense of Place: Two case studies of youth participatory action research. Children’s Geographies. pdf.

Lukacs, H. and Ardoin, N.M. 2014. The Relationship of Place Re-making and Watershed Group Participation in Appalachia. Society & Natural Resources, 27(1): 55–69.

Vaughan, M.B. and Ardoin, N.M. 2013. The Implications of Differing Tourist/Resident Perceptions for Community-Based Resource Management: A Hawaiian coastal resource area study. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. pdf.

Ardoin, N.M., Schuh, J.S., and Gould, R.K. 2012. Exploring the Dimensions of Place: A confirmatory factor analysis of data from three ecoregional sites. Environmental Education Research, 18(5): 583–607.

Ardoin, N.M. and Bowers, A.W. 2012. Trends in Philanthropic Giving: Foundation support of environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education, 43(4): 259–273.

Ardoin, N.M., Clark, C., and Kelsey, E. 2013. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research. Environmental Education Research.

Castrechini, S. and Ardoin, N.M. 2011. Youth Resource Mapping: Partnering with service providers and youth to understand the supply and demand for youth services in a local context. Perspectives on Urban Education, 8(2): 3–10. University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education. Philadelphia, PA. Download pdf.

Khalil, K. and Ardoin, N.M. 2011. Programmatic Evaluation in Association of Zoos and Aquarium-Accredited Zoos and Aquariums: A literature review. Applied Environmental Education and Communications. pdf.

Oshun, M., Ardoin, N.M., Ryan, S. 2011. Use of the Planning Outreach Liaison Model in the Neighborhood Planning Process: A case study in Seattle’s Rainier Valley neighborhood. Urban Studies Research. Download.pdf.

Powell, R.B., Stern, M.J., Krohn, B.D., and Ardoin, N.M. 2011. Development and Validation of Scales to Measure Environmental Responsibility, Character Development, and Attitudes toward School. Environmental Education Research, 17(1): 91–111.

Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., and Ardoin, N.M. 2011. Evaluating a Constructivist and Culturally Responsive Approach to Environmental Education for Diverse Audiences. Journal of Environmental Education, 42(2): 109–122.

Gould, R.K., Ardoin, N.M., and Hashimoto, J. 2010. Mālama the ‘āina, Mālama the People on the āina: The reaction to Avatar in Hawai‘i. Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature, and Culture, 4(4): 425–456.

Heimlich, J.E. and Ardoin, N.M. 2008. Understanding Behavior to Understand Behavior Change: A literature review. Environmental Education Research, 14(3): 215–237.

Stern, M., Powell, R., and Ardoin, N.M. 2008. What Difference Does It Make? Assessing outcomes from participation in a residential environmental education program. Journal of Environmental Education, 39(4): 31–43.

Ardoin, N.M. 2006. Toward an Interdisciplinary Understanding of Place: Lessons for environmental education. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 11(1): 112–126. Download pdf.

Powell, R., Stern, M., and Ardoin, N.M. 2006. A Sustainable Evaluation Framework and its Application. Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 5(4): 231–241.

Ardoin, N.M. and Sivek, D. 2002. An Environmental Education Needs Assessment Study in Nicaragua. Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 1(4): 235–244.


Selected White Papers and Technical Publications

Ardoin, N.M. (PI), Beeco, R.,  R.B. Powell (PI), M.J. Stern (PI), Wade Vagias, Chris Wynveen (Equal authorship, alphabetically listed.) 2014. Accomplishments and Lessons Learned from Toyota TogetherGreen, 2008 to 2013 (Final Report), Clemson University, Clemson, SC. Download pdf.

Biggar, M.T., Ardoin, N.M., and Morris, J. 2017. Collective Impact on the Ground. Stanford Social Innovation Review blog. Available online.

Ardoin, N.M.  Project lead. January 2011–October 2017. Environmental Education Research Bulletins: Issues 110. Oakland, CA: ChangeScale and NAAEE. Available at:

Biggar, M., Ardoin, N.M., and Wojcik, D. 2015. Implementing Collective Impact in an Environmental Education Collaborative: A case study of the collective impact process during ChangeScale’s first three years (a report prepared for ChangeScale). Stanford, CA: Stanford University.

Ardoin, N.M., Fu, A., and Holthuis, N. 2013. A Review of California’s Education and the Environment Initiative (EEI) Curriculum (a report prepared for Pisces Foundation). Stanford, CA: Stanford University.

Ardoin, N.M., Heimlich, J., Braus, J., and Merrick, C. 2013. Influencing Conservation Action: What the research says about environmental literacy, behavior, and conservation results. National Audubon Society,  U.S. EPA, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Available online.

Ardoin, N.M. and Merrick, C. 2013. Environmental Education: A brief guide for U.S. grantmakers. Washington, DC: NAAEE; and Boston, MA: Cedar Tree Foundation.

Braus, J., Ardoin, N.M. (senior writer, editor, and contributor), Ady, J., Coleman, J., Ford, M., Grimm, K., Heimlich, J., Hopkins, M., Jeppesen, G., Mann, L., Merrick, C., Miller, F., Petty, B., and Slavin, Z. 2011. Tools of Engagement: A toolkit for incorporating social strategies into environmental conservation. Washington, DC: National Audubon Society, U.S. EPA, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Available online.

Ardoin, N.M. 2009. Environmental Education: A strategy for the future. New York, NY: Environmental Grantmakers Association. Download pdf.

Ardoin, N.M. 2005. Charles Darwin Foundation Annual Report, 2004. Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Ardoin, N.M. 2004. Community Biodiversity Education Partnership Program Outreach Kit Guide. Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund.

Braus, J., Olivolo, B., and Ardoin, N.M. (senior writer). 2003. Oceans of Life: An educator’s guide to marine biodiversity. Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund.

Braus, J., Olivolo, B., Ardoin, N.M. (managing editor, senior writer). 2001. Wildlife for Sale: An educator’s guide to wildlife trade. Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund.

Braus, J., Olivolo, B., and Ardoin, N.M. (managing editor). 1999. Biodiversity Basics: An educator’s guide to exploring the web of life. Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund.


Selected Book Chapters

Ardoin, N.M., Reid, A., Lotz-Sisitka, H., Gonzalez-Gaudiano, E. 2017. Afterword. In Urban environmental education review, edited by A. Russ and M. Krasny. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Stedman, R., Ardoin, N.M. 2013.  Mobility and Scale in Place-Based Environmental Education.  New York. In Trading Zones in Environmental Education: Creating transdisciplinary dialogue, edited by M. Krasny and J. Dillon. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishers.

Gould, R.K., Ardoin, N.M., and Hashimoto, J. 2013. Transposing the Conversation into Popular Idiom: The reaction to Avatar in Hawaii. In Avatar and Nature Spirituality, edited by B. Taylor. Waterloo, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Environmental Health Series.

Ardoin, N.M. 2009. Behavior Change Theories and Free-Choice Environmental Learning. In Free Choice Learning and the Environment, edited by J. Falk, J.E. Heimlich, and S. Foutz, pp. 57–73. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.